An intriguing analysis of the rhetorical strategies used by the first generations of Europeans in their attempt to comprehend the New World. Increasingly independent private traders grew rich. The often independent activities of traders could have substantial impact in this environment.
In China Jesuits were able to exchange knowledge in western science at the imperial court for the opportunity to convert, by the seventeenth century, approximately thirty thousand followers; in southern India missions more successfully drew perhaps a quarter million converts, many from lower castes seeking Portuguese protection; and even more spectacularly in Japan, somewere converted in a period of internal Japanese turmoil.
Following the pattern of Catholic Iberian powers, French Canada was dominated by a monopolistic church that in gave the Jesuits control of missionary activity and sent hundreds of "Black Robes" inland.
Individual traders, trading dynasties, and absentee plantation owners made fortunes out of slaving. Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission in what is now the state of Marylandand the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the chief of an Indian tribe there, was "to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven.
The Church and its missions also succumbed to the growing racial consciousness of colonial society, ordaining few indigenous bishops and none at all in its first centuryand increasingly denying European education to converts.
In one Asian Pacific area, the Philippines, Spanish colonization following territorial claims made in by the explorer Magellan in his circumnavigation of the globe also led to widespread conversions. The French, for example, after widespread privateering against Iberians often launched from Protestant Huguenot Atlantic ports established backwoods traders at widely dispersed trading posts reaching into the North American Great Lakes region.
Educational work resulted in the founding of over twenty thousand mission schools by century's end. European exploration was inevitably followed by penetration of markets by traders and the establishment of Christian missions, if not always by formal imperial control and colonization.
An excellent series of brief and accessible histories of different national imperial experiences. By the mid-nineteenth century, public meetings and rallies, often featuring returned missionaries, and the mass publication of books and periodicals disseminated in Britain by the millions through a national network of local parish and chapel associations emphasized the violence, subjugation, and ignorance purportedly bred of "heathen" religions, and the desperate need of non-Christians for European tutelage.
Spanish missions faced similar problems in the Americas: The impact of early encounters: Rationalized programs to compile economic and strategic inventories of geographical, botanical, and anthropological information were sponsored by learned societies—most notably the Royal Society in London—which not only pressed for exploration of the South Pacific, but also the Arctic and Africa.
In the twentieth century, the educational, developmental, and humanitarian activities carried out by missions were extended by transnational nonprofit charitable corporations.
By the sixteenth century, Portuguese trading networks and Spanish territorial conquests provided poorly connected men, often from the tough, ambitious lower gentry, opportunities to escape the limitations of hierarchy and poverty. An important assessment of the changing relationship between imperial government and missions stressing the importance of the interplay between missionary experience and theology.
In this market women were increasingly able to compete, providing narratives of vicarious female intrepidity. Instead, they evolved a philosophy of partnership and outreach, partially as a result of the postcolonial rise of independent churches throughout the world and the decline of activist European religiosity, partially through the growth of theological liberalism that spawned an ecumenical movement of world Christian cooperation.
The exploration brought about a major contact of vast continents and their dwellers with Europe for the good and bad reasons. European exploration from the eighteenth century onward became an increasingly publicized endeavor, and in the nineteenth century narratives of exploration, like those of David Livingstonesold impressive numbers of books and spawned a growing market for travel writing.
Protestant missionaries and colonialism. Many others reaffirmed commitments to strategies that had been designed to "leaven" indigenous societies in preparation for widespread conversion: Their efforts resulted primarily in stirring accounts of missionary courage and martyrdom, but few conversions.
The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft. One important arena for the contest lay in the widely publicized exploration of Africa where the paternalistic evangelical argument for development articulated by missionary and explorer David Livingstone was implicitly pitted against the "scientific" racism characteristic of many secular explorers, like the scholar and adventurer Richard Burtonthough all European travelers constructed African exploration as a narrative of "manly" European actions and "native" inferiority.
Yet paternalistic missionary attitudes, which frequently assumed the superiority of Western economic and social organization, often supported colonial dependency. Portuguese and later Dutch commercial domination of the Indian Ocean trading economy, and Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English exploitation of resources and colonization in the "New World" of the western hemisphere were the hallmarks of this era.
These latter were too ethnically, religiously, and regionally diverse to effectively oppose a heavily armed and single-minded opponent. Marshall, Peter James, and Glyndwr Williams.Chapter 3: European Exploration and Colonization Trade Route to Asia in the s European Trade With Asia Traders - people who get wealth by buying items from a group of people at a low price and selling those things to.
The period of exploration and colonization was filled with violence between the Europeans and Natives. Was this violence inevitable? which began during the exploration of Europeans in and how their culture changed after contact with Europeans Strategy and Business Analysis.
Human Resources Management. Accounting. Business Math. EXPLORERS, MISSIONARIES, TRADERS. Steven S. Maughan. European trade, cultural contact, and colonization, following the geographical discoveries and maritime innovations of the fifteenth century, profoundly altered non-European societies throughout the world.
Consequences of Exploration for Europeans and the Indigenous Peoples. Words Nov 18th, 5 Pages. Show More. InChristopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean bearing the name of the Spanish Crown in hopes that he had landed in the Indies of Asia using a direct sea route.
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European exploration and colonization. Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell (–) is a Interracial relations between Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans is a complex issue that has been mostly neglected with "few in-depth studies on interracial relationships".Download